In the naval sector, it is not the case that there are more fires on ships with composite structures than on ships with metallic structures. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resins are used for a wide variety of industrial, household and hobby applications. Survey of literature revels that there are some reports about the dielectric behaviour of the glass reinforced laminates [130-149]. They are obtained in a two step process; first unsaturated and saturated acids or anhydrides are reacted with diols in a polycondensation reaction, secondly the resulting linear polyester prepolymer is dissolved in styrene into syrup-like resin [172-173]. © 2012 The Author(s). 3. Always processed together with a suitable di-isocyanate. The results are expressed in terms of kinetic energy consumed by the pendulum in order to break the specimen. The test sample is positioned vertically in a glass chimney and an oxygen/nitrogen environment is established with a flow from the bottom of the chimney. An IR spectrum of prepolymer polyester resin is shown in figure-3. Vinyl ester resins are produced by the reaction ('esterification') between an epoxy resin and an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. There is however, considerable variation in the efficiency of these fillers. Several investigations on the effects of electrical properties and mineral fillers have been reported [128-129]. The monomers form polymer chains. This will ultimately improve the performance of composites. Composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique using about 50 weight percent of glass fibre and filler. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The experimental work in this article deals synthetic modifications of unsaturated polyester resin in order to achieve better fire resistance and mechanical properties, lower styrene emission, better styrene solubility and lower processing viscosity. Polyester/polyurethane hybrid resin, pre-accelerated. Flexural strength is the ability of the material to withstand bending forces applied perpendicular to its longitudinal axis. Ellis discovered that unsaturated polyester resins made by reacting glycols with maleric anhydride could be cured to insoluble solids simply by adding a peroxide catalyst. Saturated polyester, on the other hand, cannot be cured this way. [38]. Corrado and his assistants [30] synthesized low viscosity unsaturated polyester resins by reacting maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and dipropylene glycol at 2000C. Fly ash consists of inorganic matter present in the coal that has been fused during coal combustion. A reactive diluent then bonds the polymer chains. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Composites [169-170]. Polyester Resin (UPR-1) Scheme with Cross linking [92]. al. The finer fraction is used for pigmentation. The specimen used for LOI test having size150 mm length, 10 mm wide and 4 mm thick. The technical specifications of antimony trioxide used in this work are given as below: Fire resistance formulations were prepared by adding non-traditional fillers like fly ash, zinc borate and hydroxyapatite in combination with traditional filler antimony trioxide in different amounts (10 to 30 wt %) in prepolymer polyester resin (table-1). Unsaturated polyesters, usually strengthened by fibreglass or ground mineral, are made into structural parts such as boat hulls, pipes, and countertops. Typically 8-10% of the output from MEG production is DEG. Table–2 represents Izod impact strength, Rockwell hardness and Flexural strength. monopropylene glycol, monoethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol). The unsaturated polyester normally blended with styrene to a reactive resin solution. The details about fillers are given as below: The formula of hydroxyapatite is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. To find out more about Cookies, including the possibility to deny their installation’s consent, and Privacy Policy Polynt, click here. of unsaturated polyester resin in styrene monomer. In spite of hydrolytic instability problems of these materials, mainly due to the fact of their pre-polymer ester functions [61-62], interest in unsaturated polyester resin comes from their low cost and easy processing. Hardness of a material is defined as the resistance to deformation, particularly permanent deformation, indentation or scratching. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin is a principle binder material used in FRP products. Building & Construction end-use segment is the most remunerative avenue for unsaturated polyester resin manufacturers. The unsaturated polyester resin is produced from diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, phthalic acid, maleic acid and benzoic acid with conventional additives. The study reveals that acrylic modification of unsaturated polyester resin by partially replacing styrene monomer drastically reduces styrene emission and greatly influences mechanical properties. When reaction mass becomes clear, it was allowed to cool. The crushed powder sample (2-3mg) in the form of a pellet was prepared by mixing with dry KBr (1g). This is very simple and advantageous method for assessing fire resistance of polymers. Global consumption of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) will continue to grow at a healthy average annual growth rate during 2018-24; UPR for fiber.reinforced plastics (FRP) accounted for nearly two-thirds of total consumption. In this work, fire behaviour of composites was evaluated. The producers of unsaturated polyesters started therefore to search actively for alternatives to styrene and started to develop additives inhibiting styrene emission. Hydroxyapatite and zinc borate gives good results as compared to other fillers. with retention time 9.309 minutes. The unsaturated polyester resin is a thermoset, capable of being cured from the liquid or solid state when subjected to the right conditions. The use of composite materials is increasing in industries including building and construction, transportation, industrial, and sports and recreation. This will ultimately improve the performance of composites. Bergamo: 383079. It is also known as calcium phosphate. ASTM D2863 is a method to determine the minimum concentration of oxygen in an oxygen/nitrogen mixture that will support a burning of test specimen. Water, a by-product of esterificationreactions, is continuously removed, driving the reaction to completion. The cured vinyl ester resin has physical properties superior to cured conventional polyester resin, particularly corrosion resistance. for cable distribution cupboards, for boats and shipbuilding, tanks, tubes, vessels and others electrical, electronic and electro technical applications like circuit breakers, switch board cabinets, automotive distributor caps, printed circuit board etc. We supply to all applications possible and can provide support on optimizing our customers systems. Carothers worked with aliphatic straight-chain polyesters, which were soluble in organic liquids, low melting and had poor resistance to hydrolysis. Unsaturated polyester resin is majorly used in the manufacturing of plastic composites. Kaolin is an inherently fine particle-size, platy, chemically inert mineral. Composites prepared using fillers antimony trioxide and zinc borate gives better performance than unfilled composites and also there is increase in mechanical properties with increase in amount of fillers. The flame-retardant property, however, is not affected by particle size. The presence of –C=O and symmetric –CH stretching was confirmed by the presence of strong bend at 1736 cm-1 and 2985 cm-1 respectively. The base knowledge on the existing application we have summarized in our Application Guides. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique using about 50 weight percent of glass fibre and filler. The HPLC grade Tetrahydrofuran(THF) was used as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The sample for analysis was kept in an oven at 35°C under vacuum overnight. 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