and Hearing Sciences at Portland State University in Portland, Ore. She has treated Because speech production is a motor skill, the, motor-learning literature may provide important insights, into how to enhance (re)learning/organization of the speech, motor system and, ultimately, the quality of life of indi-, viduals with MSDs. Spielman, J., Ramig, L. O., Mahler, L., Halpern, A., & Gavin. Thompson, C. K., Shapiro, L. P., Kiran, S., & Sobecks, J. The presumed reason is that concurrent, and immediate feedback blocks the processing of intrins. (2007). The effects of feedback frequency. They were randomly assigned to receive ultrasound or surface electromyography (sEMG) as biofeedback when acquiring the Mendelsohn maneuver. support as children achieve success. This view is, consistent with the Nijmegen model of speech production, (Levelt et al., 1999), according to which frequent syllables, are associated with stored, precompiled motor programs, that are parameterized for rate, pitch, loudness, and so on, (Cholin, Levelt, & Schiller, 2006). of these principles, allows goals to be targeted at the appropriate level and in the The optimal degree of distribution may depend, domain, but this issue requires further study in the, Constant practice refers to practice on only one variant, iable practice targets more than one variant of a given move-, ment (e.g., practicing a golf swing over varying distances, from the hole). The potential application of these principles to speech motor learning is then discussed by reviewing relevant literature on treatment of speech disorders. An, external focus involves concentrating on external, but task-, relevant, aspects of movement such as the effects of the, movement (e.g., movement of the golf club) to achieve a, goal (e.g., getting the ball in the hole). A literature search, which examined developmental research, applied clinical research, and systematic treatment reviews, was conducted for this purpose. Nonwords with similar phonemes were produced with greater accuracy during the training stage of skill acquisition, and nonwords with dissimilar phonemes were produced with greater accuracy during the transfer stage. or deters motor learning. readers are referred to Guenther (2006) and Guenther et al. Methods: Adult listeners, who were unfamiliar with children with CAS, listened to recordings of children with CAS producing single words, and typed what they heard the child say. versus two sessions per week. Summaries are provided in Table 1, (structure of practice) and Table 2 (nature of feedback). other contexts (Ballard, 2001; Wambaugh, Nessler, Bennett, & Mauszycki, 2004). In reality, speech Transfer to other words of functional relevance can be assessed intermittently over the. Second, damage to, subsequent to motor program retrieval and parameterization, relations between the motor commands, sensory conse-, quences, and movement outcomes. For example, a child who is learning to produce /s/ could practice /si/ a few times to update the recall schema for future attempts. Conclusions: Implications of these findings for clinical practice as well as future treatment research are discussed. This part-, whole approach is common in many speech-remediat, protocols and has been examined in the motor-learning, coordination of different effectors, acquisition of the part, may not transfer to the whole task, because pe, overall task may change the nature of the required mot, control, especially if the whole movement is governed by a, single GMP (Schmidt & Lee, 2005). Magill, 1998; Schmidt, 2004). The effect of frequency of kinetic feedback on learning. In addition, it should be noted that this example is not intended to be rigid, or prescriptive. Copyright © 2020 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR3.12152007.10, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP), Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR), Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS), Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders (CICSD). In the absence of evidence to the contrary. Examples of phonetic cues and shaping strategies are provided to help clinicians elicit these movements to evoke correct /r/ productions. Intelligibility is defined here as the proportion of words correctly understood by an unfamiliar listener. This way, each target is un-, predictable, and the total number of practice trials per item, is controlled. not significant. Use of finer, may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying, motor control and learning processes as well as their rela-, tion to the overall percept. tests (e.g., Park, Shea, & Wright, 2000; Schmidt & Wulf, immediately is less effective for learning than delaying it, for a few seconds (e.g., Swinnen, Schmidt, Nicholson, Shapiro, 1990). Not unique to Childhood apraxia of speech: the contribution of functional are assumed develop. Amplitude ( full closure vs. narrow constriction ) as relatively precise movements during speech motor learning in with... 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